Does high-tech industry matter for marketing strategy selection? Adaptation vs. standardization on the international market
Keywords:Internationalization, high-tech, standardization, adaptation, marketing strategy, Poland
This article’s objective is to present the results of our research on the selection of an international strategy (adaptation vs. standardization) of Polish firms on the international market in the area of product and promotion, depending on whether they belong to the high-tech industry or not. The research methodology applied in the article includes a critical literature review and quantitative methods using a CATI survey. This study is based on a sample of 355 internationalized businesses from Poland. A two-step approach was used in the quantitative study: 1) Student’s t-test and 2) logistic regression. Research shows that Polish firms from the high-tech industry adjust their international strategy to a greater extent to the requirements of individual international markets, both in product and promotion, than firms from non-high-tech industries. This study enriches the problem of international marketing strategy with the current view of the high-tech industry. The specificity and attributes of high-tech firms shed new light on the choice of a marketing strategy. It proves that the specificity of the sector can be essential and differentiate marketing decisions. In addition, high-tech attributes allow firms to respond better to today’s turbulent environment. The study can have many practical inspirations for managers, business owners, and entrepreneurs deciding on their international strategy and implementing high-tech attributes in building competitive advantage in the internationalization process.
Banaszyk, P., Deszczyński, P., Gorynia, M., & Malaga, K. (2021). The Covid-19 pandemic as a potential change agent for selected economic concepts. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 9(4), 35–50. doi: https://doi.org/10.15678/EBER.2021.090403
Breskovic, I., Altmann, J., & Brandic, I. (2013). Creating standardized products for electronic markets. Future Generation Computer Systems, 19(4), 1000–1011. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.future.2012.06.007
Daszkiewicz, N. (2019). Internationalisation Patterns of Polish Family High-Tech Firms. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 7(4), 147–163. doi: https://doi.org/10.15678/EBER.2019
Daszkiewicz, N. (2022). Technological entrepreneurship – high technology, research and development. In: W. Pasierbek & K. Wach (eds), Entrepreneurship, series „Social Dictionaries.” Kraków: Ignatianum University Press.
Freixanet, J., & Federo, R. (2022). When Born Globals Grow Up: A Review and Agenda for Research on the Performance of Maturing Early Internationalizers. Management International Revview, 62, 817–857. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11575-022-00485-y
Gao, F, Lin, C, & Zhai, H. (2022). Digital Transformation, Corporate Innovation, and International Strategy: Empirical Evidence from Listed Companies in China. Sustainability, 14(13), 8137. doi: https://doi-1org-15m95kyvh0ce3.hanbg.uek.krakow.pl/10.3390/su14138137
Giza, W. & Wilk, B. (2021). Revolution 4.0 and its implications for consumer behaviour. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 9(4), 195–206. doi: https://doi.org/10.15678/EBER.2021.090412
Głodowska, A. (2019). The concept of hi-tech firms and their role in the contemporary economy (chapter 1). In: Daszkiewicz, N. (ed.), The Internationalization of High-Tech Firms. Patterns, Innovation and Research and Development (pp. 6–36). Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Głodowska, A. (2022). International Entrepreneurship. In: W. Pasierbek & K. Wach (eds), Entrepreneurship, series „Social Dictionaries.” Kraków: Ignatianum University Press.
Hong, J., Jiang, M., & Zhang, C. (2022). Digital Transformation, Innovation and the Improvement of Enterprises’ Export Quality. Journal of International Trade, 48, 1–15.
Ipsmiller, E, Dikova, D & Brouthers, K. (2022). Digital Internationalization of Traditional Firms: Virtual Presence and Entrepreneurial Orientation. Journal of International Management, 28(4), 100940. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intman.2022.100940
Kowalik, I. & Pleśniak, A. (2022). Marketing determinants of innovation ambidexterity in small and mediumsized manufacturers. A comparative study. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 10(2), 163–185. doi: https://doi.org/10.15678/EBER.2022.100210
Kristiansen, A., & Schweizer, R. (2022). Practice coordination by principles: a contemporary MNC approach to coordinating global practices. Critical Perspectives on International Business, 18(5), 724–745. doi: https://doi.org/10.1108/cpoib-04-2020-0027
Lehrer, M., & Behnam, M. (2009). Modularity vs programmability in design of international products: Beyond the standardization–adaptation tradeoff?. European Management Journal, 27(4), 281–292. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2009.01.003
Levitt, T. (1983). The Globalization of Markets. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from: https://hbr.org/1983/05/the-globalization-of-markets (30 November 2022).
Nambisan, S. (2017). Digital Entrepreneurship: Toward a Digital Technology Perspective of Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 41(6), 1029–1055. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/etap.12254
Powers T.L. & Loyka J.J. (2010) Adaptation of Marketing Mix Elements in International Markets. Journal of Global Marketing, 23(1), 65–79. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/08911760903442176
Rakshit, S., Nazrul, I., Sandeep, M., & Tripti, P. (2022). Influence of blockchain technology in SME internationalization: Evidence from high-tech SMEs in India. Technovation, 115, 102518. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.technovation.2022.102518
Rao-Nicholson, R., & Khan, Z. (2017). Standardization versus adaptation of global marketing strategies in emerging market cross-border acquisitions. International Marketing Review, 34(1), 138–158. doi: https://doi.org/10.1108/IMR-12-2015-0292
Rymarczyk, J. (2020). Technologies, Opportunities and Challenges of the Industrial Revolution 4.0: Theoretical Considerations. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 8(1), 185198. doi: https://doi.org/10.15678/EBER.2020.080110
Solberg, C.A., & Durrieu, F. (2022). Patterns of international marketing strategy. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print). doi: https://doi.org/10.1108/JBIM-02-2022-0091
Suder, M., Kusa, R., Duda, J., & Dunska, M. (2022). How small printing firms alleviate impact of pandemic crisis? Identifying configurations of successful strategies with fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 10(2), 61–80. doi: https://doi.org/10.15678/EBER.2022.100204
Theodosiou, M., & Leonidou, L.C. (2003). Standardization versus adaptation of international marketing strategy: an integrative assessment of the empirical research. International Business Review, 12(2), 141–171. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-5931(02)00094-X
Vrontis, D., Thrassou, A., & Lamprianou, I. (2009). International marketing adaptation versus standardisation of multinational companies. International Marketing Review, 26(4/5), 477500. doi: https://doi.org/10.1108/02651330910971995
Wach, K. (2003a). Global product as a result of globalization. In: Opportunities of Change. Conference Proceedings of the 3rd International Economic Congress. Gdańsk (Poland): University of Gdansk, 71–79.
Wach, K. (2003b). Socio-cultural Framework of Advetisment on International Markets. A Brief Survey of European Advertisement Styles. Studien des Institut für den Donauraum und Mitteleuropa, 6, 141–150. (Special Issue: „Intercultural Business Management in Central and Eastern Europe” ed. by Gerhard Fink and Dieter Jauschowetz).
Wach, K. (2014). International Strategies of Businesses: Some Evidence from Internationalised Polish Firms (chapter 3). In: Gubik, A.S. & Wach, K., eds., International Entrepreneurship and Corporate Growth in Visegrad Countries. Miskolc: University of Miskolc, 41–56.
Wach, K. (2016). Innovative Behaviour of High-Tech Internationalized Firms: Survey Results from Poland. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 4(3), 153–165. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15678/EBER.2016.040311
Wach, K. (2019). Innovation and Internationalisation of High-Tech Firms (chapter 3). In: N. Daszkiewicz (ed.), The Internationalization of High-Tech Firms: Patterns, Innovation, and Research and Development. Newcastle upon Tyne (UK): Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 65–97.
Wadood, F., Al-Shaikh, M. E., Akbar, F., & Mahmud, M. (2022). Adoption of open innovation and entrepreneurial orientation practices in Malaysian furniture industry. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 10(2), 21–40. doi: https://doi.org/10.15678/EBER.2022.100202
Yin, L.Y. & Falahat, M. & Sia, B.K. (2022). Digitalisation and internationalisation of SMEs in emerging markets. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 5(3), 334–354.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Studies of the Industrial Geography Commission of the Polish Geographical Society
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Articles are published under the terms of the Creative Commons License (CC BY-ND 4.0; Attribution– NoDerivs).